Saturday, May 23, 2020

Literature Review about Investors Behavior Toward Stocks Splits

A share split is an action taken by corporate executives to increase the number of outstanding shares by dividing each share by a given split ratio that diminishes its price. In this case, the stock market capitalization does not change since the price per share reduces by the ratio of the share split. For instance, if a company splits its shares in the ratio of two shares for each one share held, the share holders will enjoy an increased numbers of shares nut at a reduced price thus the overall market capitalization remains unchanged. Stock splits are not a new term in world stock exchanges, many company have adopted the policy for a couple of reasons all geared towards increasing the marketability of its shares. Equity bank, for instance, one of the leading micro finance institutions in the world, incorporated in Kenya recently split its shares in a ratio of 10-1 giving the shares a lot of liquidity and marketability. In finance, investors are said to be rational decision makers and would try to maximize the returns to their investments by whatever means, given several constrains. Their response to share splits thus depends on several factors as explained below. Information available-financial information is critical in making investment decisions. The amount of information that investors have thus informed their response to proposed share splits.   If investors have adequate advance information concerning the share split, future investment projects by the company among other relevant information. They are likely to respond quickly to share splits. Nature of investors there are several types of investors in the stock exchange. The broadest categories of investors in the market are the long term investors and speculators. Long term investors may not quickly respond with the same gusto as the speculators who would want to make a quick kill from the investment opportunity after the shares become more affordable. Usually, such speculators are small investors who do not have enough capital to invest in expensive stocks but prefer the cheap and affordable investments. Economic situation although share splits happen in companies that are doing well, investors may be quite skeptical about purchasing stocks if they foresee a gloomy economic future. Investors buy shares if they anticipate a rise in the share prices, with a depressed economic situation, the possible share price increase may be overshadowed. Reverse split is the opposite of a share split. In some stock markets, there is a required minimum share price. If the companies share prices dip below the required share prices of that particular company, the share holders may be advised to consolidate their share holding, a term referred to as reverse split. There are several reasons why companies prefer to split their shares. The decision to split share in a company is informed by the behavior of investors towards a share split. This article thus explores the behavior of investors towards a share split and the impacts of the split on the investor’s earnings. Most traders view a stock split as a very crucial investment opportunity with great potential to increase their wealth. They consider share splits as a positive step in value and good will of the company, share splits thus psychologically makes investors feel wealthier. In some cases, some investors take stock splits as dividends oblivious of the reality in terms of the impact of such splits on price and market capitalization of the company’s shares. Critics however, argue that stock splits only make since in accounting and are quite irrelevant in real life since they do not affect performance of the shares. They actually think that shareholders would be stupid to believe that their wealth has increased as a result of a stock split (Shiller, Robert 1981), Empirical studies have however confirmed that increased market activity as a following a share split is justified. In 1996, a study by David Ikennbery of Rise University in Hong Kong measuring the long term and short-term effects of a stock split on the performance of the company company’s securities. His research findings indicated that 1275 companies that had split their share between 1975-1990 performed 8% better than their similar counterparts who had not split their shares in the first year and about 16% better in the subsequent three years. In 2003, the same researcher updated his research but this time included splits of 2-1, 3-1, and 4-1 and found that the results from this study were very similar with his original findings. He found that the companies that had split their share in the ratios above reported better results compared to those stocks that were not split, in the first year following the split and about 12% better than their counterparts in the following three years. In another research carried out in China and published in 2005, although stock splits appear purely cosmetic, there is ample empirical evidence that they are associated with abnormal returns. Theoretically, there are several reasons that explain the behavior of investors in case of a share split. This reason rotate on the fact that a share split increases the number of shares held by the shareholders and at the same time reduces the price of the shares thus making them more affordable. One, stock splits announcement raises attention to a company’s perceived success. This is because, for a company to split its shares, they must be trading at a price above the market and industry average. Such high prices result from the company’s success leading to high prices for its shares. If a company is perceived to be successful, investors would like town stocks in that company with the intention of benefiting from the capital gains expected in the long run. Investors thus respond very quickly to the announcement of a share split with the hope of making more money as the share prices go up. The reduced price per share after this split of the shares often attracts many investors since the smaller investors can now afford to purchase the company’s stocks at the reduced prices. The increased activity at the stock exchange usually makes the company’s prices to increase. Such an increase in the prices of the company stocks is a benefit to the well positioned investors who purchase their stocks at the announcement of the split. Some company’s share prices are very high to the extend that low income earners are not able to afford. With the lowered prices as a result of share splits, many investors will buy stocks at the affordable rates. Life cycle of a share split The behavior of investors towards a share split can also be analyzed using the lifecycle of a share split. Investors in the stock market behave differently at the different stages of the life cycle and thus it’s important to understand this lifecycle as an investor. Such an analysis also gives hints on the best time for one to invest in the stock market following a share split. Pre-announcement During this stage, there is not much fanfare in the stock market after a long period of healthy growth. In many cases however, emergence into this stage occurs quickly as unexpected gains cause a rapid increase in the prices of the stocks. Significant changes in price are thus witnessed at this stage. To make a good profit during this stage, it’s important that one identifies the stocks that will most likely be split and when they will be split. Investor behavior at this stage is unpredictable since investors do not have perfect information about the split and they only carry on their business as usual although sometimes there are indicators that may lead investors to anticipate such splits such as abnormally high prices per share. Announcement The upbeat atmosphere of the share split usually pulls investors in large numbers to buy shares at the reduced prices. The influx of traders in the market leads to an increase in the stock prices and this gives exceptional advantage to those investors who are well positioned before the announcement since they can sell their securities at the increased prices and make capital gains or simply wait and receive higher dividends I the future. For those investors who were initially not in the company, this period usually offers a low risk set up for timing short term trading entries. It is at this time that speculators get in and buy shares only to sell them in the near future immediately the prices look up (Simon, Herbert 1947). Dormancy period In this period, there is a return to normalcy in prices and behavior in the weeks following the announcement of the split s the initial interest subsides. The shorter this time interim, the less subdued this stage will be. Pre split run For many stocks, this is the most powerful phase of the share split cycle as investors are busy bidding up the prices of the limited stock supply. The prices are still high pending the speculators mass shift from the stock exchange. Shiller, Robert 1981) Post split run Here, the investor’s excitement after the share split is begins to fade. This stage is characterized by a retreat in the price of the share as speculators are actively selling their securities in the short run. The increased supply of the securities drives the prices down thus as the speculators exit the market. This is believed to be the best time for the long term investors to buy the securities at the reduced prices and profit fro the capital gains I the future after the prices stabilize. The above analysis indicates that the behavior of investors towards a share split will depend on the particular stage n the share split life cycle. Investors consider the price of the share and the potential future earnings in making their decisions on investment. Although practitioners like ( Bakerand Gallagher, (1980; Baker and Powel,1993) suggest that marketability of the stocks is the primary motivation for stock splits, fewer papers have shown interest in this possibility. Academic research on common stocks has however found some support for marketability hypothesis. For instance, (Lamoureux and Poon 1987) and Maloney and Mulherin 1992) confirm that the number of share holders in a company increases following a stock split. A Schultz 1999) shows that the number of small investors increases following a share split and majority of these new investments are new buys. According to empirical studies, Managers report that the main report that the major factor that contributes to stock split is to move the price of the stocks to a better and desirable trading range. The trading range for most stocks in the United States is 20-35 USD (Baker, Phillips and Powell 1995) in a review article on splits. Stock splits have been a common feature in the Newyork stock exchange. Of the listed stocks in the market at the end of 1930, almost 20% split at least once in the prior 10 years. Over a half a century later, 5-10% of all the listed companies announced a stock. The stock prices I this stock exchange have been quite stable for quite a long time, averaging between $30 to $40. Over the last half a century, the average Newyork Stock Exchange has stayed in the dollar range despite the remarkable increases in consumer prices and corporate equity values. This constancy in the price levels has been partly attributed to the frequent share splits. Some companies however, such as Berkshire Hathaway and Google, though have very high share prices averaging about 100,000 and 500USD respectively have not had share splits in their history. Another interpretation of investor behavior is that investors and analysts have no preferred price but simply adapt from the firms past split behaviors. Pilotte and Manuel (1996) for instance, provide evidence that the firms post split earnings performance to make inferences about a newly announced share split. If managers assume an optimal price for the splits and their stocks maintain that particular price level, investors can be seen to infer the manager’s private information based on announced split price and respond to that information. A lot of research a lot has been found to support these claims even if the motivation for that belief is less clear (e.g. Baker and Powell, 1993). Financial theories advanced to explain stock splits rely primarily on two attributes. The information flows between investors and managers and transaction costs as financial intermediaries and investors interact. Theories focusing on interactions between investors and intermediaries investigate the idea that share splits adjust prices to a level that redues the transaction costs and at the same time increases the investor trading opportunities. At this level, investors will find the securities to be more attractive and will move in to purchase more shares thus increasing the liquidity of the shares in the stock market. Summary and conclusion As mentioned earlier, share splits can also be reversed by the managers of the company. It is done when management intends to place the shares in an attractive range. Decisions to consolidate shares is either discretionary or non discretionary. Management may decide to improve the company’s image by consolidating the company’s shares if they are selling at an abnormally low price. This increases the marketability and demand for the shares. This is because investors’ view too low share prices as being speculative. Management may also consolidate the company’s shares to attract institutional investors. Such investors make huge share purchases and invest with along term perspective. For management to attract such investors, the share prices must be attractive. Reducing the number of outstanding shares also has an effect on the earnings per share attributable to the existing share holders. Since earning per share is computed as after tax profit for the company divided by the number of ordinary share holders, reducing the number of ordinary share shares will have a positive impact on the share holder earnings. In some stock exchange markets however, firms are supposed to maintain a given level of price per share. Incase a firms share price drops below this level required, then the company has no option but to consolidate its shares. This phenomenon is called non-discretionary reverse split. A lot of research has been directed towards the behavior of investors towards stock splits. Findings from most of the researches’ indicate that there is positive correlation between stock splits and investor response to the markets activities. Empirical research indicates that companies that have split their shares have reported better performance than their counterparts who have not split their shares. Many researchers have backed these findings with empirical evidence that indicate that such companies perform better by over 8% while others dismiss such claims as very cosmetic and baseless. They believe that stock splits do not alter the wealth of the share holders since there is no real change in the market capitalization. They argue that investors are stupid enough to believe that the increased number of shares as a result of a share split improves their wealth. They argue that such believe is not true and only in the investors psychology (Fama, Eugene 1965). Other researchers on the other hand have proven that the lowered prices after the share split induces small investors to purchase more shares since they become affordable after the share split. The increased attention towards the company after the announcement of the share split by investors leads to the appreciation of the company’s stocks prices. This creates value to the share holders through capital gains or future dividends in the long run. A lot of opportunities for empirical research however, exist on the benefits of a share split on the companies shares. It’s also important that share holders and investors have clears information on the impacts of the pre and post split effects on their future earning. In making investment decisions after a share split announcement, investors should understand the implications of the share split on the various financial ratios such as the dividend per share, dividend yield, price earning ratio, market price per share amongst other relevant information. This area presents a good opportunity for researchers to explore all the information pertaining to the share split so that investors can be able to make informed decisions on the timing, impact and magnitude of their investments before and after a share split announcement. References Barber, Brad, and Terrance Odean. Too Many Cooks Spoil the Profits: Investment Club Performance,† Financial Analysts Journal.2004. vol. 56, no. 1 (January/February), 17-25. Chen, Joseph, Harrison Hong, and Jeremy Stein (2000), â€Å"Forecasting Crashes: Trading Volume, Past Returns and Conditional Skewness in Stock Prices,† NBER Working Paper No. 7687 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research). De Bondt, Werner, and Richard Thaler (1985), â€Å"Does the Stock Market Overreact?† Journal of Finance, vol. 40, no. 3 (July), 793-808. Fama, Eugene (1965), â€Å"Random Walks in Stock Market Prices,† Financial Analysts Journal, vol. 21, no. 5 (September/October), 55-59. Fama, Eugene (1965), â€Å"The Behavior of Stock Market Prices,† The Journal of Business, vol. 38 (January), 34-105. Fama, Eugene, Lawrence Fisher, Michael Jensen, and Richard Roll (1969), â€Å"The Adjustment of Stock Prices to New Information,† International Economic Review, vol. 10, 1-21. Finn, Mark, Russell Fuller, and John Kling (1999), â€Å"Equity Mispricing: It’s Mostly on the Short Side,† Financial Analysts Journal, vol. 55, no. 6 (November/December), 117-126. Gibbons M., and P. Hess, (1981) â€Å"Day of the Week Effects and Assets Returns,† Journal of Business, vol. 54, 579-596. Jensen, Michael (1978), â€Å"Some Anomalous Evidence Regarding Market Efficiency,† Journal of Financial Economics, vol. 6, nos. 2/3, 95-101. Johnson, W. Bruce, Robert P. Magee, Nandu J. Nagarajan, and Harry A. Newman (1985), â€Å"An Analysis of the Stock Price Reaction to Sudden Executive Deaths,† Journal of Accounting and Economics, 1985, 151-174. Oppenheimer, Henry R. (1981), Common Stock Selection: an Analysis of Benjamin Graham’s â€Å"Intelligent Investor† Approach (Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press). Rendelman, Richard J., Charles P. Jones, and Henry A. Latanà © (1982), â€Å"Empirical Anomalies Based on Unexpected Earnings and the Importance of the Risk Adjustments,† Journal of Financial Economics, vol. 10, no. 3, 269-287. Roberts, Harry (1959), â€Å"Stock Market ‘Patterns’ and Financial Analysis: Methodological Suggestions,† Journal of Finance, Vol. XIV, No. 1, 1-10. Rozeff, M. and W. Kinney (1976), â€Å"Capital Market Seasonality: The Case of Stock Returns,† Journal of Financial Economics 3, 379-402. Shiller, Robert (1981), â€Å"Do Stock Prices Move Too Much to Be Justified by Subsequent Changes in Dividends?† American Economic Review , vol. 71, no. 3 (June), 421-436. Simon, Herbert (1947), Administrative Behavior (New York: Macmillan Co.)

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Falling Apart of Okonkwos Personal Life and the...

Things Fall Apart. Such an intriguing title, because everything will eventually fall apart. Chinua Achebes choice of a title may lead some to confusion, because throughout his book many things fall apart, from Okonkwos personal life achievements and emotions to the town of Umuofia as its people split, and perhaps the biggest thing to fall apart, the very culture of the Igbo people. One could focus on any one of these topics and trace the complexity of its fall from previous glory to the eventual ruin at the end of Achebes novel. Studying the overall book provides a much more interesting conclusion, however, than simply tracking the different ways people or the town change, as instead it is possible to gain insight into Achebes goals†¦show more content†¦Okonkwo started with what his father, Unoka, had left him. Unoka left the legacy of his son [...] was ashamed of him (Achebe 8.) He left Okonkwo [having] taken no title and [being] heavily in debt (8.) However, Okonkwo was ab le to rise above his being ashamed of his father, because despite being left heavily in debt he had become a wealthy farmer (8) and despite his father not having any titles, he had won fame [...] and he had taken two titles [...] he was already one of the greatest men of his time (8.) Okonkwo was able to become successful, despite the disgrace his father had left as his legacy, and because of this Okonkwo received a boy to take care of, Ikemefuna. However, when Okonkwo must allow the boy to be killed, he sabotages his own emotional health by going with the execution party. This moment shows how Igbo culture was not perfect, as this is not a problem within the culture caused by Europeans, but is just an unfortunate part of what their traditional culture is. Okonkwo was warned by Ogbuefi Ezeudu, a man considered wise and given high respect, to not kill that boy because he calls [Okonkwo] father (57.) Oknonkwos own insecurities are highlighted just as Ikemefuna is about to be killed, w hen Ikemefuna cries, My father, they have killed me! as he ran towards [Okonkwo]. Dazed with fear, Okonkwo drew his machete and cut him down. He was afraid of being thought weak (61.) Okonkwo

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Term Paper on an Analysis on the Comparison Free Essays

This report, an analysis on the comparison of customer satisfaction between Grahame Phone Beanlike has been prepared to fulfill the partial requirement of ABA program. While preparing this report, I had great opportunity to have an in depth knowledge of activities, especially on the research methodology . This report brings helps to develop our understanding about formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses. We will write a custom essay sample on A Term Paper on an Analysis on the Comparison or any similar topic only for you Order Now At first we collect 50 people’s person data then find out the customer of the gap ; bankrolling. Hen we comparison of the customer satisfaction. This research improves our knowledge, skills ; ability. In ABA program on the course BUS 405 Research Methodology for Business is very important things. Students know about the research. Knowledge of research not only helps one to look at the available information In sophisticated and creative ways in the fast-paced global environment that business race but this knowledge also helps In other ways. Modern technology has made research an excellent and a relatively smooth process. Today a personal computer with a modem or any means to an internet connection places one within easy reach of knowledge of what happening in the global environment. Technology has facilitated the research process and decision making. 1. 2 Objective * To Identify the satisfaction level To Identify the average expenditure * To identify the burden level * To identify the average per minute call charge of BAL ; GAP connection to subscribers opinion * To identify ; analysis that mobile phone is playing a significant role in the economic development of Bangladesh. . 3 Methodology Methodology is very important : useful thing in a report. Methodology is a guideline system for salving a problem with specific components. Such us phases, task, Method, techniques ; tools. There are two sources of data collection: * Primary sources There are several method of collecting data : The observation method is the mostly commonly used method in studied relating to behavioral sciences. In a way we all obs erve things around us, but this sort observation is not is scientific observation. Observation becomes a scientific tool and the method of data collection for the researcher when it serves a formulated research purpose is systematically planned and recorded and is subjected to checks and controls on validity band reliability. 2. Interview The interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral – verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral – verbal responses. This method can be used through arsenal interviews. 3. Through questionnaires The method of collecting data by mailing the questionnaires to respondents is most extensively employed in various economic and business surveys. The merits claimed on behalf of this method are as follows: a) There is low cost even when the universe so large and is widely spread geographically b) It is free from the bias of the interviewer: answers are in respondent own words, c) Respondents have adequate time to give well thought out answers. D) Large samples can be made use of and thus the results can be made more dependable and reliable. 4. Through the schedules This method of data collection is very much like the collection of data through questionnaire with little difference which lies in the fact that schedules are being filled in by the enumerators who are specially appointed for purpose. These enumerators along with schedules go to respondents put to them the questions from the Performa in the order the questions are listed and record the replies in the space meant of the same Performa. Ins certain situation schedules may be handed over the respondents and enumerators may help them in recording their answers to various questions in the said schedules. Enumerators explain the aims and objects of the investigation and also remove the difficulties which any respondent may feel in understanding the implications of a particular question or the definition of concept of difficult terms. 5. Discussion with the officer with the officer of BAL ; GAP * Secondary sources 1. Annual report of BAL ; GAP 2. Various document s from BAL ; GAP 3. Different websites, books 4. Internal record 1. 4 Scope . This report, an analysis on the comparison of customer satisfaction between Grahame Phone ; Beanlike. T has been prepared to fulfill the partial acquirement of ABA program. While preparing this report, I had great opportunity to have an in depth knowledge of activities, especially on the research methodology . This report brings helps to develop our understanding about formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses. At first we collect 50 people’s person data then find out the customer of the gap bankrolling. Then we comparison of the customer sa tisfaction. This research improves our knowledge, skills ability. Important things. 1. Limitation On the way of the report, an analysis on the comparison of customer satisfaction teen Grahame Phone Beanlike, I faced the following problems, which may be termed as the limitations of the study. The major limitations of this study are given as follows I. There were some restrictions to have access to the information confidential by concern people ii. Some of the people cannot share their actual information. Iii. I have no proper experience to do this kind of report. So, inexperience creates obstacle to follow the systematic and logical research methodology. Part: 2 Overview of the cellular phone Industry 2. 1 history of the industry Grahame phone: Gramophone, widely known as GAP, is the leading telecommunications service provider in Bangladesh. With more than 32 million subscribers (as of June 2011) Gramophone is the largest cellular operator in the country. It is a Joint venture enterprise between Telethon and Grahame Telecoms Corporation, a non-profit sister concern of the internationally acclaimed micromanage organization and community development bank Grahame Bank. Telethon, the largest telecommunications company in Norway, owns 55. % shares of Gramophone, Grahame Telecoms owns 34. 2% and the remaining 10% is publicly held. Gramophone was the first company to introduce GSM technology in Bangladesh. It also established the first 24-hour Call Center to support its subscribers. With the slogan Stay Close, stated goal of Gramophone is to provide affordable telephony to the entire population of Bangladesh. The idea of providing universal mobile phone access throughout Bangladesh, including its rural areas, was originally conceived by Cabal Quadric, who is currently the founder and director of telegram Center for Development and Entrepreneurship at MIT. He was inspired by the Grahame Bank microcircuit model and envisioned a business model where a cell phone can revere as a source of income. After leaving his Job as an investment banker in the United States, Quadric traveled back to Bangladesh, after meeting and successfully raising money from New York based investor and philanthropist Joshua Mailman, and worked for three years gaining support from various organizations including Nobel Peace Prize laureate Muhammad Yuan’s of Grahame Bank and the Norwegian telephone company, Telephone was finally successful in forming a consortium with Telethon and Grahame Bank to establish Gramophone. Quadric remained a shareholder of Gramophone until 2004. Gramophone received license for cellular phone operation in Bangladesh from the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications on November 28, 1996. Gramophone started operations on offered a mobile-to-mobile connectivity (widely known as GAP-GAP connection), which created a lot of enthusiasm among the users. It became the first operator to reach the million subscriber milestone as well as ten million subscriber milestone in Bangladesh. November 28, 1996: Gramophone Ltd. Received cellular license by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications of Bangladesh. March 26, 1997: Gramophone launched its service on the Independence Day of Bangladesh. June 1998: Gramophone started its services in Chitchatting, the second largest city and the port city of Bangladesh. Cell to cell coverage between Dacha-Chitchatting was established. 1999: Gramophone started its service in Chula, the industrial city of Bangladesh. Also cell to cell coverage between Dacha and Chula brought a number of other districts under coverage. 2000: Gramophone started its services in Rajahs, the education city of Bangladesh. Service also started in Sylphs and Barista and thus all six divisional headquarters got the cellular network coverage for the first time Bangladesh. August 2003: Gramophone’s subscribes base has become more than one million. Gramophone became the first operator in the country to reach the million subscribers. November 2005: Gramophone registered more than 5 million subscribers. November 5, 2006: Gramophone crosses the 10 million subscriber mark after almost ten years of operation. September 20, 2007: Gramophone reaches 15 million subscribers mark. June 2008: Gramophone reaches 20 million subscribers landmark. On the November 16, 2006 GAP formally changed its logo to match its parent company Telethon’s logo. According o GAP the new logo symbolizes trust, reliability, quality and constant progress. The name Gramophone was kept as part of the new identity because the name Gramophone carries with it all of the heritage, success and values of the company’s past, added the then CEO of Gramophone Erik As. Bankrolling: Bankrolling is the second largest cellular service provider in Bangladesh after Gramophone. As of November, 2009, Bankrolling has a subscriber base of 12. 99 million. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Rococo Telecoms. Bankrolling had 1. 03 million connections until December, 2005. The number of Bankrolling users increased by 257 per cent and stood at 3. 64 million at the end of 2006, making it the fastest growing operator in the world of that year. In August, 2006, Bankrolling became the first company to provide free incoming calls from BUTT for both postpaid and prepaid connections. On August 20, 2008, Bankrolling got past the landmark of 10 million subscriber base. Sheep Telecoms(Pat Ltd)-after talking lots- finally was granted license in 1989 to operate in the rural areas of 199 piazzas. Later it obtained GSM license in 1996 to extend its business to cellular mobile, radio telephone services. It launched operation in the last quarter of 1997 as a Bangladesh-Malaysia Joint venture. In July, 2004, it was reported that Egypt based Rococo Telecoms is set to purchase the Malaysian stakes in Sheep Telecoms through a hush-hush deal, as Sheep had failed to tap the business potentials in Bangladesh mainly due to a chronic feud between its Malaysian and Bangladesh partners. An agreement was reached with Rococo worth IIS$25 million was finalized in secret. The pact has been kept secret for legal reasons, considering dealing was the Joint venture agreement between the Bangladesh and the Malaysian ratters, which dictates that if any party sells its Sheep shares, the other party will enjoy the first right to buy that. Integrated Services Ltd. (SSL), the Bangladesh partner, was being ‘officially shown as purchasing the shares held by Technology Resources Industries URI) of Malaysia for $15 million. SSL then paid another $10 million to Standard Chartered Bank to settle Saba’s liabilities. In September, 2004, Rococo Telecoms Holdings purchased 100% of the shares of Sheep Telecoms (Pat. ) Limited (â€Å"Sheep†). It was acquired for IIS$60 million. Sheep had a base of 59,000 users, of whom 49,000 were regular when it was sold. Afterward it was re-branded and launched its services under the â€Å"Bankrolling† brand on February 10, 2005. Bankrolling;s license is a nationwide 15-year GSM license and will expire in November, 2011. In March, 2008, Sheep Telecoms (Pat. Limited changed its name as Rococo Telecoms Bangladesh Limited, matching its parent company name 2. 2 mission vision of the companies Mission vision of GAP: The gramophone Ltd aims at providing reliable, widespread, convenient mobile and cast effective telephone services to the people in Bangladesh irrespective of where they live. Such services will also help Bangladesh keep pace with other entries i ncluding those in south Africa region and reduce her existing disparity in telecoms services between urban rural area. To be leading provider of telecommunication services with satisfied customers and share holder and enthusiastic employees. † Mission vision of BAL: Bankrolling aims to understand peoples’ needs best and develop appropriate communication services to improve peoples’ life and make it simple. All our work is aimed towards meeting our vision. All members of the bankrolling family are highly passionate individuals, fully committed to achieving the vision that we have set ourselves. Our customers’ needs matter most to us- making their life simple and improving it is all we want. To ensure our vision is achieved, we have set ourselves a few values, we want to be: Straight Forward, Reliable, Innovative, Passionate. All the bankrolling family members have one thing in common- a passion to serve. We want to go that extra mile, so that you can have the best possible service. Limiting in the future of Bangladesh. 2. 3 Market invention Market invention of GAP: According to Gramophone, it has so far invested more than BAT 10,700 core (USED 1. 6 billion) to build the network infrastructure since 1997. It has invested over BAT 3,100 core (USED 450 million) during the first three quarters of 2007 while BAT 2,100 core (USED 310 million) was invested in 2006 alone. Gramophone has built the largest cellular network in the country with over 10,000 base stations in more than 5700 locations. Presently, nearly 98 percent of the country’s population is within the coverage area of the Gramophone network. The entire Gramophone network is also EDGE/GAPS enabled, allowing access to dial-up quality speed Internet and data services from anywhere within the coverage area. There are currently nearly 3 million EDGE/GAPS users in the Gramophone network. Market invention of bal: Bankrolling offers a wide range of products and services to suit the needs of the dedicated enterprise relationship manager who provides them with personalized customer care round the clock. Other benefits of enterprise include customized packages with attractive call charges and connection price, enterprise SMS broadcast, enterprise short code, international roaming, missed call alerts, free voice mail retrieval, fax and data service, call conferencing, special offer for family members and many more. It was first launched in December, 2006. The current packages are: * enterprise corporate; targeted at the corporate segment * enterprise SEEM; targeted at the SEEM segment * enterprise personal Prior to the launch of Bankrolling enterprise, Bankrolling served the business clientele through a similar platform named Bankrolling professional. 2. 4: Products Description: Gramophone was the first operator to introduce the pre-paid mobile phone service in Bangladesh in September 1999. It offers the pre-paid subscription under the name Easy Prepaid which is currently called â€Å"shoji ,Bond ,Upon, smile, sponsor, Business Solution prepaid†. Besides shoji, Bond, Upon, smile, sponsor, Business Solution, Gramophone also offers a youth based mobile to mobile connectivity within Bangladesh named deduce. Gramophone also offers postpaid mobile service. Explore Postpaid is the name of its post paid service. Internet: Gramophone provides internet service in its coverage area. As it has EDGE/GAPS enabled network, any subscriber can access to internet through this network. Gramophone was the first mobile operator in Bangladesh to offer EDGE services to its subscribers. Bill Pay: A service to enable users to pay their utility bills Electricity/Gas through mobile. Cell Bazaar : Services to enable users sell or buy products through mobile or internet. Various other services like Stock Information, Instant Messaging, SMS Based Alerts/ Services, Voice-based Services, Downloads, Music, Cricket Updates, Web SMS, Mobile Backup etc. Bankrolling currently offers two prepaid plans. All the prepaid plans come in two phases-?Standard and MM. All connections provide GAPS to subscribers. Des, with the slogan Eek Des Eek Rate! (means one country one rate! ), is one of the cheapest prepaid plans in the country by tariff. Users of Des can call any mobile operator at 0. Take during 12 AM to 5 PM. It also has three Fan numbers. Des was launched on September 14, 2006. Des rang is launched as a brand extension to enrich the brand of Des. Rang is a Bengali word which means color. It is introduced with the catch phrase-?Ranging Din Pan Jawbone (misdemeanors your life. ). This package is beneficial for customers who mainly make calls to their own network and are hea vy SMS users. It offers four on-net Fan numbers, but no off-net Fan number. Regular prepaid was the first package Bankrolling had to offer. It is currently unavailable in the market. Ladies, first! Tit the slogan Shampooer Network (means network of relationships), was tailored for women. It was launched on September 3, 2005. It had introduced 1 second pulse for the first time in the prepaid market. It offered four Fan numbers. It is currently unavailable in the market. Be linked! Was launched on November 16, 2005. It was later taken over by Des package as all thebe linked! Customers were automatically migrated to Des. Currently there are three postpaid plans from which is a subset of much larger Bankrolling enterprise. All packages come with TT local, NOD KIDS and e-KIDS connectivity. Part: 3 Research Methodologies . 1 Review of literature * To demonstrate a familiarly with a body of knowledge and establish credibility. * To know the path of prior research and how a current research project link to it. To integrate and summarize what is known in an area. * To learn from others and stimulate new ideas. * Identification of variables. * Helps in developing theoretical framework. 3. 2 Determining Variables Simply defined, variable is a concept that varies. The values can differ at various times for the same object or person, or at the same time for different object or persons. There are two types of concepts. These are: Concept refers to a fixed phenomenon * Concepts that those varies in quantity, Intensity or amount The 2nd type of concept and measure of concept are variable. Because variable represents a quality that can exhibit difference in value, usually magnitude or strength, it may be said that a variable generally is anything that may assume different numerical or categorical values. For example: * Gender(male, female) * Marital status (Married, Unmarried ,widowed ,Divorced) * Family income * Attitude toward women empowerment(highly favorable-highly unfavorable) There are several types of Variables. There are: Dependent Variable * Independent Variable * Continuous Variable * Discontinuous Variable * Moderating Variable * Intervening Variables * Extraneous Variables * Relationship Among Variables 3. 3 Constructing theoretical framework The theoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire research project is based. It I logically developed, described and elaborated network of associations among the variable deemed relevant to the problem situation and identified through such processes as interviews, Observation and literature survey. Experience and intuition also guide in developing the theoretical framework. The components of the theoretical framework: 1 . The variables considered relevant to the study should be clearly identified and labeled in the discussions 2. The discussions should state how two or more variables are related to one another This should be dome for the important direction of the relationships can be theorized on the basis of the finding s of previous research, then there should be an indication in the discussions as to whether the relationships would be positive or negative. 4. There should be a clear explanation of why we would expect these relationships to exist. How to cite A Term Paper on an Analysis on the Comparison, Essays

A Term Paper on an Analysis on the Comparison Free Essays

This report, an analysis on the comparison of customer satisfaction between Grahame Phone Beanlike has been prepared to fulfill the partial requirement of ABA program. While preparing this report, I had great opportunity to have an in depth knowledge of activities, especially on the research methodology . This report brings helps to develop our understanding about formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses. We will write a custom essay sample on A Term Paper on an Analysis on the Comparison or any similar topic only for you Order Now At first we collect 50 people’s person data then find out the customer of the gap ; bankrolling. Hen we comparison of the customer satisfaction. This research improves our knowledge, skills ; ability. In ABA program on the course BUS 405 Research Methodology for Business is very important things. Students know about the research. Knowledge of research not only helps one to look at the available information In sophisticated and creative ways in the fast-paced global environment that business race but this knowledge also helps In other ways. Modern technology has made research an excellent and a relatively smooth process. Today a personal computer with a modem or any means to an internet connection places one within easy reach of knowledge of what happening in the global environment. Technology has facilitated the research process and decision making. 1. 2 Objective * To Identify the satisfaction level To Identify the average expenditure * To identify the burden level * To identify the average per minute call charge of BAL ; GAP connection to subscribers opinion * To identify ; analysis that mobile phone is playing a significant role in the economic development of Bangladesh. . 3 Methodology Methodology is very important : useful thing in a report. Methodology is a guideline system for salving a problem with specific components. Such us phases, task, Method, techniques ; tools. There are two sources of data collection: * Primary sources There are several method of collecting data : The observation method is the mostly commonly used method in studied relating to behavioral sciences. In a way we all obs erve things around us, but this sort observation is not is scientific observation. Observation becomes a scientific tool and the method of data collection for the researcher when it serves a formulated research purpose is systematically planned and recorded and is subjected to checks and controls on validity band reliability. 2. Interview The interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral – verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral – verbal responses. This method can be used through arsenal interviews. 3. Through questionnaires The method of collecting data by mailing the questionnaires to respondents is most extensively employed in various economic and business surveys. The merits claimed on behalf of this method are as follows: a) There is low cost even when the universe so large and is widely spread geographically b) It is free from the bias of the interviewer: answers are in respondent own words, c) Respondents have adequate time to give well thought out answers. D) Large samples can be made use of and thus the results can be made more dependable and reliable. 4. Through the schedules This method of data collection is very much like the collection of data through questionnaire with little difference which lies in the fact that schedules are being filled in by the enumerators who are specially appointed for purpose. These enumerators along with schedules go to respondents put to them the questions from the Performa in the order the questions are listed and record the replies in the space meant of the same Performa. Ins certain situation schedules may be handed over the respondents and enumerators may help them in recording their answers to various questions in the said schedules. Enumerators explain the aims and objects of the investigation and also remove the difficulties which any respondent may feel in understanding the implications of a particular question or the definition of concept of difficult terms. 5. Discussion with the officer with the officer of BAL ; GAP * Secondary sources 1. Annual report of BAL ; GAP 2. Various document s from BAL ; GAP 3. Different websites, books 4. Internal record 1. 4 Scope . This report, an analysis on the comparison of customer satisfaction between Grahame Phone ; Beanlike. T has been prepared to fulfill the partial acquirement of ABA program. While preparing this report, I had great opportunity to have an in depth knowledge of activities, especially on the research methodology . This report brings helps to develop our understanding about formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses. At first we collect 50 people’s person data then find out the customer of the gap bankrolling. Then we comparison of the customer sa tisfaction. This research improves our knowledge, skills ability. Important things. 1. Limitation On the way of the report, an analysis on the comparison of customer satisfaction teen Grahame Phone Beanlike, I faced the following problems, which may be termed as the limitations of the study. The major limitations of this study are given as follows I. There were some restrictions to have access to the information confidential by concern people ii. Some of the people cannot share their actual information. Iii. I have no proper experience to do this kind of report. So, inexperience creates obstacle to follow the systematic and logical research methodology. Part: 2 Overview of the cellular phone Industry 2. 1 history of the industry Grahame phone: Gramophone, widely known as GAP, is the leading telecommunications service provider in Bangladesh. With more than 32 million subscribers (as of June 2011) Gramophone is the largest cellular operator in the country. It is a Joint venture enterprise between Telethon and Grahame Telecoms Corporation, a non-profit sister concern of the internationally acclaimed micromanage organization and community development bank Grahame Bank. Telethon, the largest telecommunications company in Norway, owns 55. % shares of Gramophone, Grahame Telecoms owns 34. 2% and the remaining 10% is publicly held. Gramophone was the first company to introduce GSM technology in Bangladesh. It also established the first 24-hour Call Center to support its subscribers. With the slogan Stay Close, stated goal of Gramophone is to provide affordable telephony to the entire population of Bangladesh. The idea of providing universal mobile phone access throughout Bangladesh, including its rural areas, was originally conceived by Cabal Quadric, who is currently the founder and director of telegram Center for Development and Entrepreneurship at MIT. He was inspired by the Grahame Bank microcircuit model and envisioned a business model where a cell phone can revere as a source of income. After leaving his Job as an investment banker in the United States, Quadric traveled back to Bangladesh, after meeting and successfully raising money from New York based investor and philanthropist Joshua Mailman, and worked for three years gaining support from various organizations including Nobel Peace Prize laureate Muhammad Yuan’s of Grahame Bank and the Norwegian telephone company, Telephone was finally successful in forming a consortium with Telethon and Grahame Bank to establish Gramophone. Quadric remained a shareholder of Gramophone until 2004. Gramophone received license for cellular phone operation in Bangladesh from the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications on November 28, 1996. Gramophone started operations on offered a mobile-to-mobile connectivity (widely known as GAP-GAP connection), which created a lot of enthusiasm among the users. It became the first operator to reach the million subscriber milestone as well as ten million subscriber milestone in Bangladesh. November 28, 1996: Gramophone Ltd. Received cellular license by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications of Bangladesh. March 26, 1997: Gramophone launched its service on the Independence Day of Bangladesh. June 1998: Gramophone started its services in Chitchatting, the second largest city and the port city of Bangladesh. Cell to cell coverage between Dacha-Chitchatting was established. 1999: Gramophone started its service in Chula, the industrial city of Bangladesh. Also cell to cell coverage between Dacha and Chula brought a number of other districts under coverage. 2000: Gramophone started its services in Rajahs, the education city of Bangladesh. Service also started in Sylphs and Barista and thus all six divisional headquarters got the cellular network coverage for the first time Bangladesh. August 2003: Gramophone’s subscribes base has become more than one million. Gramophone became the first operator in the country to reach the million subscribers. November 2005: Gramophone registered more than 5 million subscribers. November 5, 2006: Gramophone crosses the 10 million subscriber mark after almost ten years of operation. September 20, 2007: Gramophone reaches 15 million subscribers mark. June 2008: Gramophone reaches 20 million subscribers landmark. On the November 16, 2006 GAP formally changed its logo to match its parent company Telethon’s logo. According o GAP the new logo symbolizes trust, reliability, quality and constant progress. The name Gramophone was kept as part of the new identity because the name Gramophone carries with it all of the heritage, success and values of the company’s past, added the then CEO of Gramophone Erik As. Bankrolling: Bankrolling is the second largest cellular service provider in Bangladesh after Gramophone. As of November, 2009, Bankrolling has a subscriber base of 12. 99 million. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Rococo Telecoms. Bankrolling had 1. 03 million connections until December, 2005. The number of Bankrolling users increased by 257 per cent and stood at 3. 64 million at the end of 2006, making it the fastest growing operator in the world of that year. In August, 2006, Bankrolling became the first company to provide free incoming calls from BUTT for both postpaid and prepaid connections. On August 20, 2008, Bankrolling got past the landmark of 10 million subscriber base. Sheep Telecoms(Pat Ltd)-after talking lots- finally was granted license in 1989 to operate in the rural areas of 199 piazzas. Later it obtained GSM license in 1996 to extend its business to cellular mobile, radio telephone services. It launched operation in the last quarter of 1997 as a Bangladesh-Malaysia Joint venture. In July, 2004, it was reported that Egypt based Rococo Telecoms is set to purchase the Malaysian stakes in Sheep Telecoms through a hush-hush deal, as Sheep had failed to tap the business potentials in Bangladesh mainly due to a chronic feud between its Malaysian and Bangladesh partners. An agreement was reached with Rococo worth IIS$25 million was finalized in secret. The pact has been kept secret for legal reasons, considering dealing was the Joint venture agreement between the Bangladesh and the Malaysian ratters, which dictates that if any party sells its Sheep shares, the other party will enjoy the first right to buy that. Integrated Services Ltd. (SSL), the Bangladesh partner, was being ‘officially shown as purchasing the shares held by Technology Resources Industries URI) of Malaysia for $15 million. SSL then paid another $10 million to Standard Chartered Bank to settle Saba’s liabilities. In September, 2004, Rococo Telecoms Holdings purchased 100% of the shares of Sheep Telecoms (Pat. ) Limited (â€Å"Sheep†). It was acquired for IIS$60 million. Sheep had a base of 59,000 users, of whom 49,000 were regular when it was sold. Afterward it was re-branded and launched its services under the â€Å"Bankrolling† brand on February 10, 2005. Bankrolling;s license is a nationwide 15-year GSM license and will expire in November, 2011. In March, 2008, Sheep Telecoms (Pat. Limited changed its name as Rococo Telecoms Bangladesh Limited, matching its parent company name 2. 2 mission vision of the companies Mission vision of GAP: The gramophone Ltd aims at providing reliable, widespread, convenient mobile and cast effective telephone services to the people in Bangladesh irrespective of where they live. Such services will also help Bangladesh keep pace with other entries i ncluding those in south Africa region and reduce her existing disparity in telecoms services between urban rural area. To be leading provider of telecommunication services with satisfied customers and share holder and enthusiastic employees. † Mission vision of BAL: Bankrolling aims to understand peoples’ needs best and develop appropriate communication services to improve peoples’ life and make it simple. All our work is aimed towards meeting our vision. All members of the bankrolling family are highly passionate individuals, fully committed to achieving the vision that we have set ourselves. Our customers’ needs matter most to us- making their life simple and improving it is all we want. To ensure our vision is achieved, we have set ourselves a few values, we want to be: Straight Forward, Reliable, Innovative, Passionate. All the bankrolling family members have one thing in common- a passion to serve. We want to go that extra mile, so that you can have the best possible service. Limiting in the future of Bangladesh. 2. 3 Market invention Market invention of GAP: According to Gramophone, it has so far invested more than BAT 10,700 core (USED 1. 6 billion) to build the network infrastructure since 1997. It has invested over BAT 3,100 core (USED 450 million) during the first three quarters of 2007 while BAT 2,100 core (USED 310 million) was invested in 2006 alone. Gramophone has built the largest cellular network in the country with over 10,000 base stations in more than 5700 locations. Presently, nearly 98 percent of the country’s population is within the coverage area of the Gramophone network. The entire Gramophone network is also EDGE/GAPS enabled, allowing access to dial-up quality speed Internet and data services from anywhere within the coverage area. There are currently nearly 3 million EDGE/GAPS users in the Gramophone network. Market invention of bal: Bankrolling offers a wide range of products and services to suit the needs of the dedicated enterprise relationship manager who provides them with personalized customer care round the clock. Other benefits of enterprise include customized packages with attractive call charges and connection price, enterprise SMS broadcast, enterprise short code, international roaming, missed call alerts, free voice mail retrieval, fax and data service, call conferencing, special offer for family members and many more. It was first launched in December, 2006. The current packages are: * enterprise corporate; targeted at the corporate segment * enterprise SEEM; targeted at the SEEM segment * enterprise personal Prior to the launch of Bankrolling enterprise, Bankrolling served the business clientele through a similar platform named Bankrolling professional. 2. 4: Products Description: Gramophone was the first operator to introduce the pre-paid mobile phone service in Bangladesh in September 1999. It offers the pre-paid subscription under the name Easy Prepaid which is currently called â€Å"shoji ,Bond ,Upon, smile, sponsor, Business Solution prepaid†. Besides shoji, Bond, Upon, smile, sponsor, Business Solution, Gramophone also offers a youth based mobile to mobile connectivity within Bangladesh named deduce. Gramophone also offers postpaid mobile service. Explore Postpaid is the name of its post paid service. Internet: Gramophone provides internet service in its coverage area. As it has EDGE/GAPS enabled network, any subscriber can access to internet through this network. Gramophone was the first mobile operator in Bangladesh to offer EDGE services to its subscribers. Bill Pay: A service to enable users to pay their utility bills Electricity/Gas through mobile. Cell Bazaar : Services to enable users sell or buy products through mobile or internet. Various other services like Stock Information, Instant Messaging, SMS Based Alerts/ Services, Voice-based Services, Downloads, Music, Cricket Updates, Web SMS, Mobile Backup etc. Bankrolling currently offers two prepaid plans. All the prepaid plans come in two phases-?Standard and MM. All connections provide GAPS to subscribers. Des, with the slogan Eek Des Eek Rate! (means one country one rate! ), is one of the cheapest prepaid plans in the country by tariff. Users of Des can call any mobile operator at 0. Take during 12 AM to 5 PM. It also has three Fan numbers. Des was launched on September 14, 2006. Des rang is launched as a brand extension to enrich the brand of Des. Rang is a Bengali word which means color. It is introduced with the catch phrase-?Ranging Din Pan Jawbone (misdemeanors your life. ). This package is beneficial for customers who mainly make calls to their own network and are hea vy SMS users. It offers four on-net Fan numbers, but no off-net Fan number. Regular prepaid was the first package Bankrolling had to offer. It is currently unavailable in the market. Ladies, first! Tit the slogan Shampooer Network (means network of relationships), was tailored for women. It was launched on September 3, 2005. It had introduced 1 second pulse for the first time in the prepaid market. It offered four Fan numbers. It is currently unavailable in the market. Be linked! Was launched on November 16, 2005. It was later taken over by Des package as all thebe linked! Customers were automatically migrated to Des. Currently there are three postpaid plans from which is a subset of much larger Bankrolling enterprise. All packages come with TT local, NOD KIDS and e-KIDS connectivity. Part: 3 Research Methodologies . 1 Review of literature * To demonstrate a familiarly with a body of knowledge and establish credibility. * To know the path of prior research and how a current research project link to it. To integrate and summarize what is known in an area. * To learn from others and stimulate new ideas. * Identification of variables. * Helps in developing theoretical framework. 3. 2 Determining Variables Simply defined, variable is a concept that varies. The values can differ at various times for the same object or person, or at the same time for different object or persons. There are two types of concepts. These are: Concept refers to a fixed phenomenon * Concepts that those varies in quantity, Intensity or amount The 2nd type of concept and measure of concept are variable. Because variable represents a quality that can exhibit difference in value, usually magnitude or strength, it may be said that a variable generally is anything that may assume different numerical or categorical values. For example: * Gender(male, female) * Marital status (Married, Unmarried ,widowed ,Divorced) * Family income * Attitude toward women empowerment(highly favorable-highly unfavorable) There are several types of Variables. There are: Dependent Variable * Independent Variable * Continuous Variable * Discontinuous Variable * Moderating Variable * Intervening Variables * Extraneous Variables * Relationship Among Variables 3. 3 Constructing theoretical framework The theoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire research project is based. It I logically developed, described and elaborated network of associations among the variable deemed relevant to the problem situation and identified through such processes as interviews, Observation and literature survey. Experience and intuition also guide in developing the theoretical framework. The components of the theoretical framework: 1 . The variables considered relevant to the study should be clearly identified and labeled in the discussions 2. The discussions should state how two or more variables are related to one another This should be dome for the important direction of the relationships can be theorized on the basis of the finding s of previous research, then there should be an indication in the discussions as to whether the relationships would be positive or negative. 4. There should be a clear explanation of why we would expect these relationships to exist. How to cite A Term Paper on an Analysis on the Comparison, Essays

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Obama Approach to the Middle East-Free-Samples for Students

Question: Write a Review of the Obama Approach to the Middle East. Answer: Introduction United States of America has maintained a toxic relationship with the Middle East countries since long. This relationship included the non-collaborative economic plans as well as strategies which harmed both the parties. During the first election of President Barrack Obama, he intended to express a view regarding the transparency of foreign policy with the Middle East countries. In his second term, the entire foreign policy of US government evaluated two questions about the economical trade with Middle East. The first question that aroused was whether this foreign policy can be transformed according to the requirement and if so then to which extent it will be restructured in terms of the Americas theory of realism. The second question was whether Obama continued the old policy where America differentiated the Middle East Countries according to the oil trade and terror in terms of the economical profit of the country(Indyk M. S., 2013). This essay reflects the four main arguments thro ugh these two questions regarding Barrack Obamas foreign policy with the Middle East countries. This debatable foreign policy is more continuation of the previously stated strategies than anything newly developed; His approach was different than George W. Bush in reality because he employed the force of liberalism into the democratic structure of Global Politics. However, in the case of Middle East, Obama seemed entirely reluctant with few corrections totally unnoticeable. This essay explains the efficiency and flaws of the policy in the context of Americas debatable realism as well as liberalism. It also emphasizes the ideological struggle of Barrack Obama as the President of United States of America. Summary Many academicians and critics have argued that Obamas foreign policy lacked the strategic vision which landed him up into trouble with the Middle East. However, there is a little conflict in this idea. At the beginning of the president ship, Obama came up with a conviction that the excessive military control and political investment in the countries like Iraq and Iran were the part of one prominent interest of the national security of America itself. Rightsizing the United States impact in the region intended not only reducing its material existence but in addition working out restraint diplomatically, stepping again and challenging allies for taking greater responsibility for their particular security(Indyk M. S., 2012). Obama provided adhered to this specific strategy, prioritizing it callously along the way in addition to firmly resisting efforts in order to force it off the track. This was not a new strategy much beloved inside Washington or in a new region hard-wired for the typ ical exercise of American power. Nevertheless, it was an obvious and coherent strategy which led Obama to embark on major initiatives on the typical problems he viewed since rising to the amount of core national security pursuits: Irans nuclear weapons plan, terrorism, the Israeli-Palestinian turmoil, and the war within Iraq. Arguments The Middle East remains the most dangerous, most complicated, and perhaps most controversial component in the Obama administrations conduct of world affairs. Among the arguments President Obama made for his Iran offer is that many associated with the same men and women who argued for the war within Iraq are actually making the particular case against the Iran nuclear deal. Essentially the president was inquiring them to contrast their judgment against some of his opponents, and promote the position of the particular as more sensible party, which usually the president evidently thinks he is. The international policy of the United States in terms of the Middle East countries has eventually structured on two basic ideologies. The first principle insured that the particular region of Middile Easts oil flowed smoothly towards the industrially developed planet without any local hegemony developing in order to either dismantle the oil supply of the oil chain or end up being a participant wh o disrupted the management of a share of the oil region totally disproportioned. The next strategy talked about de-escalation, in order to the stretch the area of possibilities, regarding the conflict happening in Israel as well as its neighbors who are Arab in expressions. And apart from this particular subject of the final four decades the administration successfully has got opportunities that adhered to these two ambitions, with a preconceived strategy and action plan. The invasion of Kuwait by Saddam Husseins had been successfully turned over by the problems of the nations which were under the leadership of America. The attempts that Iran made for projecting its military power into the countries which are Gulf in general, and pressurized them for the closure of the straits of Hormuz in specific addition, were repeatedly blown down simply by the presence of the American military in the region. Additionally, American council related to the security guarantees and the availability of the particular advanced United States techniques related to the weaponry was the main problem in terms of the security of those countries. The turmoil between the nation of Israel and the neighbors, a problem that caused both the countries a serious war, Jordan, and Syria on the time period of 1948 and 1973, was de-escalated with major significance. Under United States sponsorship, Israel was forced to sign the peace treaties with the countries named Egypt and Jordan. A de facto regarding an entirely unofficial armistice, was also conducted between Israel and Syria. To be certain in the case that it was not really the peaceful end of conflict as well as problems in the region. Regardless of a particular number of several conducted peace agreements between the debatable issue of Palestinians and Israel, a lasting settlement about it tried and provided is yet to become fulfilled. This fact was underscored by two unidentified Palestinian Intifadas, with an ambition of a one third se ttlement that stays on the verge of a meaningful association with the start, and going terrorist attacks. Evaluation That order, in which we all live for the period, was structured to favor democratic systems associated with government that value human rights and equal security for all over definitionally illiberal and undemocratic kleptocracies, autocracies and theocracies. Obamas argument for the servicing of this order had been liberal in an old-fashioned sense, in that he or she directed policy based upon the belief that individuals of all faiths, creeds and tribes could eventually coexist. Because these global organizations were founded upon American values. Obama thinks that they act as force multipliers for American power. In other words, the projection of American force is really a cheaper endeavor when it is done through establishments that enforce Americas worth set on its account(Krieg, 2016). Thus he argued that Americas complex architecture associated with alliances and financial obligations to international bodies in fact strengthens the nation more compared to the nation could actual ly strengthen itself on its own. In sketching his grand vision for the particular world and his role in it, Obama never emerged to understand the Israeli individuals, who in their particular pursuit of secure nationhood have proudly shunned views and dictates coming from the outdoors. They reject a globalist political philosophy. And therefore the particular Israeli individuals never came to understand Obama or even his hopes for the less tribal yet abundantly multicultural world. Israel never ever adjusted to his vision; the prospects for this kind of a dramatic political realignment were slim from the particular start(Dalacoura, 2012). And Obama never ever adjusted to the actuality of what Israel is usually, as opposed to what he thinks Israel should be; in order to the Jewish state since it appears today, distinctively scarred or resilient, based on the light. Obama struggled to comprehend how the recipients of liberal democratic freedoms whether in His home country of Israel, F rance or his very own homeland could, by means of their own rights, refuse the rights of other people. He found this exercise hypocritical, while recognizing that, in the US and also under his own leadership security concerns have the direct and dramatic influence on the advancement associated with civil liberties. Obama approached the Israeli-Palestinian conflict getting prejudged the players. This individual chose early on to treat the Israeli federal government as a political adversary(Bouchet, 2013). Israelis thought Obama viewed them not as the partner within a liberal democratic alliance, but from the particular perspective of a globalist seeking structure for the particular Palestinians and credibility along with an unstable, fractured plus illiberal Arab world. Obamas dismissiveness of tribalism arrives from an American model of liberalism that is tough, otherwise impossible to discover in the Middle East. But despite his literacy on regional history, Obama considered tri balist politics within Israel as somehow much less acceptable as in undemocratic nations with fewer systems for cultural assimilation. In retrospect, the article is convincing to some degree. While the foreign policies of the United States have been given a proper idea and how or why the views have changed over time. However, the point that can still be raised after everything is the aspect of continuous war that is going on in the Middle Eastern countries. The invasions have had a jittering effect on the Middle eastern countries that have ravaged the whole region and may have already had impacts on these countries for decades to come. Only a certain point has been reached by the article about being successfully able to convince the reader while justifying the US policies on the middle eastern countries. Conclusion This essay concludes with the idea of supremacy that United States of America has always evolved in order to develop its economic and political power structure. The idea Obama infused was changed in the flow of global politics. Therefore, the foreign policy with the Middle East remained a strategy to oppress the people in the terms of trade. Obama could have opted for a better path which talks about the liberalist perspective of global politics. However, the transparency never emerged and Palestine-Iraq conflict remained a key tool for power politics. Obamas approach to the Middle East was neither professional nor liberal according to the theory of realism. Perhaps, it was not the path of Obama that changed the global politics, but it was Washington that changed Barrack Obama forever. Upon analyzing the article, it is inferred that more people should read this, so that more people can be made aware about the foreign policies of the United States and how the country views the Middle E ast. Change evolution of the United States perception on the Middle East, and how their foreign policies changed based on those views, have been given an almost chronological order so that the entire shift in the mindsets of the policy makers and the government of the USA can be understood. The verdict of the article, hence, is that it is quite enlightening in terms of being insightful about the foreign policies of the country. However, the all the areas are not covered and many controversial topics which may be uncomfortable to talk about have been evaded completely or not fully elaborated. References Bouchet, N. (2013). The democracy tradition in US foreign policy and the Obama presidency.International Affairs,89(1), 31-51. Dalacoura, K. (2012). The 2011 uprisings in the Arab Middle East: political change and geopolitical implications.International Affairs,88(1), 63-79. Gerges, F. A. (2013). The Obama approach to the Middle East: the end of Americas moment? Indyk, M. S., Lieberthal, K. G., O'Hanlon, M. E. (2012). Scoring Obama's foreign policy: A progressive pragmatist tries to bend history.Foreign Affairs, 29-43. Indyk, M. S., Lieberthal, K. G., O'hanlon, M. E. (2013).Bending History: Barack Obama's Foreign Policy. Brookings Institution Press. Krieg, A. (2016). Externalizing the burden of war: the Obama Doctrine and US foreign policy in the Middle East.International Affairs,92(1), 97-113.

Monday, March 23, 2020

Business Environment Loreal Paris Essay Example

Business Environment: Loreal Paris Paper The well-known slogan of company is Because Im Worth It. , which represents the essence of the LOrealal Paris brand as a whole. History The history of LOrealal refers to a many years ago -? in 1909 young chemist and natural entrepreneur Eugene Schuler design, produced and sold one of the first hair dyes to hairdressers in Paris. In the beginning it was founded as Commissar, Inc. Later, company established by Eggen Schuler become LOrealal, started to grow rapidly thanks to its innovations and quality, encompassing all aspects of beauty for everyone, every. ;ere. Location All product division headquarters and operation department of LOrealal ASSAI, Inc. Are located in New York City. The Strategic Committee consists of 12 members, including six heads of product divisions and six heads of corporate functions. In 2009 in the company (ASSAI) was fixed around 9,000 employees. LOrealal LISA is wholly owned subsidiary of LOrealal. LOrealal USA, Inc. And its products One able to buy LOrealal USA products in 1 30 countries. All over the world LOrealal has 64,600 employees in 66 countries. Also, there are 5 development centers of LOrealal worldwide (Shanghai ROI De Jeanine, Dublin, New York, Paris). We will write a custom essay sample on Business Environment: Loreal Paris specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Business Environment: Loreal Paris specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Business Environment: Loreal Paris specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Company is engaged in a wide-range of in-house tailored programmer as well. LOrealal USA has many such a famous brands as LOrealal Paris, Grainier, Giorgio Airman Paramus and Cosmetics, Lana;me, Amiability New York, Vichy, Diesel and many others. Market share The main competitors of LOrealal in cosmetics market are Procter Gamble and Revolve. Revolve only sells cosmetics, while only small part of Procter Gamblers business is cosmetics. Also LOrealal is much larger than its competitors such as Avon and Esteem Lauder. It means that LOrealal spends more money on marketing which is very important to success in the cosmetics industry. For this reason, LOrealal is proved to be a leader in the cosmetics market. LOrealal occupies 15. 8% of North and 10. 5% of South America cosmetics market. Economic Environment Success of any business is depends on its environment. The demand for LOrealal USA, Inc. Products depends on economic indicators as well. (All financial figures based on an exchange rate ?1=$1. 42) Economic growth Economic growth is the annual increase in a countrys Gross Domestic products (GAP). If there is a high level Of economic growth in the country the income level of its population would be relatively high.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Bose-Einstein Condensate Definition

Bose-Einstein Condensate Definition Bose-Einstein condensate is a rare state (or phase) of matter in which a large percentage of bosons collapse into their lowest quantum state, allowing quantum effects to be observed on a macroscopic scale. The bosons collapse into this state in circumstances of extremely low temperature, near the value of absolute zero. Utilized by Albert Einstein Satyendra Nath Bose developed statistical methods, later utilized by Albert Einstein, to describe the behavior of massless photons and massive atoms, as well as other bosons. This Bose-Einstein statistics described the behavior of a Bose gas composed of uniform particles of integer spin (i.e. bosons). When cooled to extremely low temperatures, Bose-Einstein statistics predicts that the particles in a Bose gas will collapse into their lowest accessible quantum state, creating a new form of matter, which is called a superfluid. This is a specific form of ​condensation which has special properties. Bose-Einstein Condensate Discoveries These condensates were observed in liquid helium-4 during the 1930s, and subsequent research led to a variety of other Bose-Einstein condensate discoveries. Notably, the BCS theory of superconductivity predicted that fermions could join together to form Cooper pairs that acted like bosons, and those Cooper pairs would exhibit properties similar to a Bose-Einstein condensate. This is what led to the discovery of a superfluid state of liquid helium-3, ultimately awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physics. Bose-Einstein condensates, in their purest forms, experimentally observed by Eric Cornell Carl Wieman at the University of Colorado at Boulder in 1995, for which they received the Nobel prize.   Also Known As: superfluid